دوران حکومت قاجار و پهلوی فصل جدیدی در عرصه تعلیموتربیت است. دورانی که متولیان فرهنگ و ادب، با توجه به نیازها و ضرورتها، چارچوب رسمی تربیتمعلم و تألیف محتوا را ترسیم کردند. در این دوران، دو بار سیستم نظام آموزشی تغییر میکند و به دنبال آن، محتوای آموزشی مراکز تربیتمعلم نیز عوض میشود و انواع مختلف دانشسرا در ایران شکل میگیرد. دانشسراهای مقدماتی قدیمترین و فراگیرترین نوع آن است که نقش بسزایی در تحول فرهنگی و تربیت معلمان مدارس ابتدایی کشور داشته است. مطابق مصوبات مجلس شورای ملی، یکی از نخستین مراکز دانشسرای مقدماتی کشور در شهرستان بیرجند تأسیس میشود که در دوره پهلوی بهعنوان پایدارترین مدل تربیتمعلم فعالیت داشته است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی فعالیت دانشسراهای مقدماتی پسرانه و دخترانه و تبیین فرایند عملکرد آنها در استان خراسان جنوبی است که به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی با بهرهگیری از منابع کتابخانهای، اسنادی و مصاحبه به این موضوع میپردازد. نتایج حاصله، مبیّن آن است که دانشسراهای مقدماتی بیرجند به منظور تأمین و تربیت معلم دبستانهای جدید بر پایه قوانین و مقررات مجلس شکل گرفته و سابقه فعالیت مدرسه شوکتیه نقش بسزایی در تسهیل فعالیت آن داشته است. همچنین انتخاب مدیران آن طبق شرایط مصرح در قانون معارف و با توجه به تجربه و صلاحیتهای فردی صورت گرفته و از حمایت دائمی حاکمیت سیاسی محلی برخوردار بوده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Process of Establishing Preliminary Teacher Training Colleges in Birjand and Their Management
A rich body of scholarship has emerged on the history of teacher education in Iran over the past century, including Khouinejad’s 1976 “The Evolution and Expansion of Teacher Education in Iran”, Safi’s 2011, “Teacher Education in Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Germany, England, India, and Pakistan”, and Safi’s (2008) “Teacher Education and Provision in Iran (Past, Present, and Future)”. Recent developments in educational reform in South Khorasan province have been addressed in Alizadeh Birjandi and Valipour’s (2020) “nvestigating the Achievements of Shokatiyeh School’s Identity”, Naseh and Mohammad Miri’s (2013) “From Shokatiyeh to Birjand University” (2013), and Akbari’s (2021) “The History of Teacher Education in Iran (South Khorasan Province)”. Preliminary teacher training colleges played a crucial role in transforming educational aspirations, and Birjand Preliminary School stood at the forefront of this transformation. As Iranians embraced the symbols of modernity, the traditional school system began to wane, and the initiatives of enlightened families led to the establishment of new schools, including Shokatiyeh in Birjand. With the nationalization of schools, a unified educational approach emerged, prioritizing the provision of schools and teachers. To comply with the Ministry of Education’s mandate for teacher training for primary schools, Birjand teacher training colleges was founded, utilizing the Alam family’s building to accommodate its students. The convergence of these two forces revolutionized education across the region from Sistan to Gonabad, nurturing a multitude of pioneers in various scientific fields. This article delves into two fundamental questions:
What factors and historical contexts contributed to the establishment of Birjand teacher training colleges?
How has the administration and management of this educational institution evolved over time?
The research aimed to delve into the formation, functioning, and administration of teacher training colleges for girls and boys in Birjand during 1937 up to1980. It employed library resources and documents from diverse institutions, including the National Library and Archives of Iran, the Research Center of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, the Education Archives of Birjand, and the Talim va Tarbiat Magazine. Additionally, numerous interviews were conducted with key individuals and former students, yielding valuable insights into research gaps of the 1940s. The utilization of written sources and oral interviews has been a strength of this research in comprehensively defining and analyzing the performance of Birjand teacher training colleges. Moreover, the dearth of documents related to girls’ primary schools constitutes a significant limitation of this study.
The findings of the research show that with the mandatory education and establishment of elementary schools, the provision of teachers became a necessity. In this regard, the Consultative Assembly, by passing the Education Law, obligated the government to establish preliminary teacher training colleges. As a result, the process of establishing these centers began in several cities, including Birjand, Iran. Over time, with the increase of student population and changes in the educational system, different methods of teacher training were chosen, but none were successful and eventually closed. However, the preliminary teacher training college, after a short hiatus, resumed its activities. The main problem for the teacher training college in Birjand was the provision of physical space, which was initially addressed through the rental of a building owned by the local ruling family, the Alam’s family. Later, the center obtained a permanent location through the donation of land. In any case, the preliminary teacher training college was the most stable model for teacher training throughout the Pahlavi era. After the Islamic Revolution, the male preliminary teacher training college was transferred to Torbat-e Heydariyeh in 1979, and the female teacher training college continued its activities until the graduation of all students in 1980.
Discussion and Conclusion
Both national and local factors played a role in the formation and continuity of the activities of preliminary schools in Birjand. The National Consultative Assembly, the Council of Ministers, and the Supreme Council of Education are the three institutions whose approvals outline the establishment and general framework of the activities of these schools. The most important action of the National Consultative Assembly was the approval of the Teacher Training Law and the establishment of preliminary teacher training colleges, which aimed to stabilize their positions by employing graduates and offering round-the-clock facilities. The formation of the Birjand preliminary teacher training college was based on this. The formulation of student admission regulations, course titles, the continuity or closure of school activities, and the replacement of other teacher training systems were the major effects of the central government and the Supreme Council of Education’s approvals on the preliminary teacher training colleges. Local governance also played a very important role in facilitating the conditions for the establishment and continuity of the activities of the Birjand teacher training college. This local governance initially created a successful educational system in the form of Shokatiyeh schools, which, as a successful alternative to the traditional school system, eliminated the opposition of conservatives and zealots with the new educational order. Shokatiyeh schools were active in many areas of South Khorasan. Additionally, after the issuance of the education law and the establishment of preliminary teacher training college, providing the school building and financial support for the students played an influential role in the continuity of the school’s activities. Ultimately, by donating land to the school, it played a very influential role in the stability and facilitation of educational programs. The legislative approvals supervised the management of the schools. The principal had to be a graduate of a higher education institution and was appointed to this position after an interview in Tehran. Students were selected locally, and their local knowledge was a major part of their activities during spring and summer vacations. In addition, the close relationship of the preliminary teacher training college with secondary schools provided the necessary initial experience for the students, who had to successfully pass all theoretical and practical subjects through written, oral, and practical exams. As a result, the forty-year history of preliminary teacher training college was considered a successful and valuable experience in the teacher education system of the province, which did not find a more successful alternative. After the Islamic Revolution, male preliminary teacher training college was transferred to Torbat-e Heydariyeh in 1979, and the female preliminary teacher training college continued its activities until the graduation of all students in 1980.