توسعه بازار گردشگری مذهبی در حکم ضرورتی انکارناپذیر در جهان، بویژه کشورهای اسلامی مطرح است. گردشگری مذهبی سه تعریف را در برمیگیرد سفر به یک منطقه مذهبی (زیارت مذهبی) سفر برای تجمع مذهبی و سفر تفریحی همراه با گروه مذهبی. از اینرو و با توجه به اهمیت این نوع گردشگری، این مطالعه با هدف ارائه الگوی بومی گردشگری مذهبی در شهر مشهد و با رویکرد آمیخته و به روش ترکیبی انجام شده است. روش تحلیل در این پژوهش ترکیبی از نوع اکتشافی و تحلیلی است. بخش کیفی با نظریه دادهبنیاد و بخش کمّی با استفاده از تکنیک حداقل مربعات جزئی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری در بخشهای کیفی شامل 12 نفر از خبرگان و اساتید دانشگاهی در رشته صنعت گردشگری، مدیران و افراد فعال در امور گردشگری مذهبی در شهر مشهد و جامعه آماری در بخش اعتبارسنجی الگو، شامل 384 نفر از گردشگران مذهبی شهر مشهد هستند. دادههای حاصل از مصاحبه با کمک نرمافزار MAXQDA برای شناخت مقولههای اصلی و فرعی، ارائه الگوی نهایی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج این تحلیل نشان داد که الگوی حاصل مشتمل بر هشت مقوله اصلی شامل سیاستهای کلان گردشگری مذهبی، مدیریت تسهیلات و خدمات گردشگری، نظام تحقیقاتی مذهبی، استقرار فرهنگ گردشگری مذهبی، ارزیابی استراتژیک گردشگری، چالشهای گردشگری مذهبی، توسعه زیرساختها و خدمات لازم متناسب با نیاز گردشگران مذهبی و توسعه گردشگری است. نتایج بخش کمی نیز با کمک نرمافزار SMART PLS نشان میدهد مدیریت تسهیلات و خدمات گردشگری، نظام تحقیقاتی مذهبی و استقرار فرهنگ گردشگری مذهبی بر توسعه توریسم مذهبی در شهر مشهد تأثیرگذار هستند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Presenting the local model of religious tourism in the city of Mashhad by using a mixed method and its validation
Religious tourism, based on religious convictions, is one of the world's oldest, and most successful travel types from antiquity to the present. The world needs to boost religious tourism, especially in Islamic countries. Islam promotes advancement and greatness for people. The aforementioned information demonstrates how Islam has significantly influenced Iranian tourism, travel habits, and travel reasons. Regarding the presence of Razavi Holy Shrine, other natural and historical attractions, and its location on North-South Transnational Corridor, Mashhad, the first pole of the Shiite world and Iran's second religious’ city, attracts the most religious tourists. Although it is agreed that this is the city's main goal, it should be highlighted that Iranian tourism management practices have shown that the industry's top priority is the preservation of values, not economic or social issues. Despite what has been said, the researcher decided to close the gap in earlier studies by presenting the indigenous model of tourism while considering structural and meta-structural differences, as well as the country's platform for offering religious tourism services, which is completely distinct from other models in other parts of the world. Iran has a brand-new and cutting-edge religion. What is the regional pattern of religious tourism in Mashhad, as mentioned in the research's stated purpose?
The present study uses a mixed-method approach to analysis, combining preliminary and analytical methods, focusing on achieving specific research objectives. The qualitative portion of the study involved using an interview protocol for gathering data. Subsequently, the grounded theory approach was employed to categorize, classify, and scrutinize the data. Twelve persons who have the necessary competence and occupy academic positions in the travel and tourism sector make up the community of qualitative researchers. This group also includes managers and those who are actively interested in Mashhad's religious tourism. The study uses an exploratory approach to interviewing while utilizing a snowball sampling method. The quantitative aspect of the study utilizes the partial least squares technique, and the model is validated via smart-PLS software. The quantitative section of researcher-developed questionnaire employs a data collection tool based on a statistical model and population. The population in question consists of religious tourists in Mashhad, with a sample size of 384 individuals selected via Cochran's formula and random sampling methodology.
Data Analysis & Findings
The initial stage of this study involves identifying the subject matter (terminology), and conducting interviews with scholars, specialists, and notable advocates within the tourism industry for data analysis. Thus, after the researcher's open coding phase, a total of 85 codes were found once the analysis of the first 8 interviews was finished. The researcher made linkages between the codes obtained from the earlier stage during the axial coding step. To create the fundamental dimensions, this was done by using their respective traits and dimensions. Open coding relies on description capacity, which serves as the foundation for data analysis to arrive at conclusions. During selective coding phase, the researcher refined the theory, and focused on a limited number of categories while making theoretical adjustments as necessary. A paradigmatic model was developed by identifying its primary constituents. The quantitative component of study involved testing the process model derived from the qualitative findings. Analysis of the results revealed that the reliability values for both indicators, as well as their composite reliability, exceeded 0.7 for all research variables. This may indicate the validity of the survey used for the study. Convergent validity, which is based on the average value of extracted variance, and divergent validity, which is based on the Forner-Larker criteria, were computed in order to evaluate the measurement model's validity. The structural model's path coefficients among the research variables were found to be significant, as indicated by the coefficients' values exceeding the absolute value of 1.96. The estimation model of standard coefficients reveals that both the factor loadings in the measurement model, and beta path coefficients in the structural model exceed 0.5. This suggests that there is evidence supporting the presence of manifest variables (rectangular variables) in the measurement model, and latent variables (oval variables) in the model. The phenomenon under consideration pertains to the structure. The adequacy of the internal model was assessed. In contrast to measurement models, the internal model ignores all unresolved issues and model variables in favor of concentrating only on latent variables and their interactions. In order to determine if the model is structurally adequate, many criteria have been evaluated. The GOF index score of 0.607 indicates that the model fits the data well.
Discussion & Conclusion
The study's framework showed that various factors, including the management of tourism facilities and services, the religious research system, and the establishment of religious tourism culture, contribute to the emergence of religious tourism in Mashhad. The causal conditions previously mentioned exert a direct effect on the primary and central phenomenon under investigation, specifically macro-policies related to religious tourism. In light of these conditions, it is imperative to implement pertinent policies. In light of the current situation, it is essential to take into account the supply of necessary infrastructure and services in line with the needs of religious visitors. In contrast, by having a negative effect on the religious tourism industry in Mashhad, the challenges related to religious tourism may make it more difficult to achieve goals. Through strategic evaluation of tourism, pertinent managers can surmount environmental challenges, and ultimately attain the development of tourism as the ultimate objective. Based on the findings of this study, the promotion, and establishment of urban tourist destinations in Mashhad have a significant effect on the religious tourism industry of the city, serving as a fundamental factor in attracting visitors. The influx of tourists to Mashhad's tourist attractions generates demand for urban tourism services and amenities in the surrounding areas. The expansion of tourism services offers a crucial framework for augmenting employment prospects in the realm of urban tourism. The provision of urban tourism services has contributed to the facilitation of tourists' access to tourism services. The aforementioned phenomenon functions as the basis for the increase in visitor influx to Mashhad's tourist destinations, thereby possibly nurturing the expansion of the city's tourism industry. To assess the effects of tourism marketing initiatives on the scale of the target market, as well as the economic and employment opportunities in Mashhad, it is feasible to compute the expenditures incurred by tourists over a specific time frame across various sectors, including religious centers, lodging establishments, dining establishments, tourist attractions, and recreational facilities, while taking into account the observance of social and cultural norms and local and indigenous customs.